Since the enactment of the Pension Protection Act in 2007, premiums required by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corp. have increased dramatically. The per-head flat rate has increased an average of 7.8% since 2007 and 14.6% on average since 2012. The variable rate remained constant at $9 per every $1,000 of unfunded vested benefits until 2012, when it jumped to $14.

The hikes are expected to continue, with scheduled increases in the flat rate averaging 7.7% in 2018 and 2019 and variable rate increases averaging 11.2% over the same period.